Catalyst Monitoring

A sub-oxygen sensor (S2) placed downstream, at the outlet of the catalytic converter, is monitored for switching frequency and compared to the switching frequency of the main oxygen sensor (S1), placed upstream of the catalyst. The oxidation efficiency of the catalyst can be determined by comparing the switching frequency of these two sensors. As the catalyst conversion efficiency declines, the switching frequency of sensor 2 increases, approaching that of sensor 1. In addition to being used for diagnostics, sensor 2 also assists in maintaining optimum fuel control when the catalyst begins to degrade.

DIY Battery Repair

DIY Battery Repair

You can now recondition your old batteries at home and bring them back to 100 percent of their working condition. This guide will enable you to revive All NiCd batteries regardless of brand and battery volt. It will give you the required information on how to re-energize and revive your NiCd batteries through the RVD process, charging method and charging guidelines.

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