No electrical circuit will function normally without a dependable ground. Toyota EFI systems use a redundant ground system which significantly reduces the chance of ground problems; however, this circuit should never be overlooked when troubleshooting ECU related systems.
The E2 circuit serves as a signal return or sensor ground. Referring to an EWD, you will notice that the throttle position sensor, water and air temperature sensors, and air flow meter all flow current to ground through circuit E2. The ECU supplies a chassis ground through the E1 circuit which typically terminates somewhere on the engine.
Circuits E01 and E02 serve as grounds for the fuel injector driver circuits. To provide a redundant ground for the ECU, these two grounds are tied to the E1 circuit through a diode. In the event that the E1 wiring to chassis is open circuit, E1 circuit current could flow through the diode to ground. The diode serves to prevent voltage spikes from the injectors from interfering with other ECU circuits.
It is not uncommon for many or even all ECU grounds to terminate at the same point and fasten to the engine with the same fastener. Sometimes a ground fault is due to one fastener being left loose after a service procedure has been performed.
It is a fairly simple task to confirm the integrity of all ECU ground circuits in fairly short order. Two methods can be used to identify and isolate a ground fault; these are the circuit continuity check and the voltage drop check. These procedures along with checks of the power distribution circuits are addressed in exercises 5-1 and 5-2.
Fuel Injection Control
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