Ignition Timing Strategy

The ECU determines ignition timing by comparing engine operating parameters with spark advance values stored in its memory. The general formula for ignition timing follows:

Initial timing + Basic advance angle + Corrective advance angle = Total spark advance.

Basic advance angle is computed using signals from crankshaft angle (G1), crankshaft speed (Ne), and engine load (Vs or PIM) sensors. Corrective timing factors include adjustments for coolant temperature (THW) and presence of detonation (KNK).

Igniter

IGf Signal Generation Circuit

DIY Battery Repair

DIY Battery Repair

You can now recondition your old batteries at home and bring them back to 100 percent of their working condition. This guide will enable you to revive All NiCd batteries regardless of brand and battery volt. It will give you the required information on how to re-energize and revive your NiCd batteries through the RVD process, charging method and charging guidelines.

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