Injector Timing Drive Circuits

The design of the injector drive circuit and ECM programming determines when each injector delivers fuel in relation to the operating cycle of the engine. If the injectors are turned on according to the crankshaft position angle, it is called synchronous injection. That is, the injectors are timed to turn on according to crankshaft position. Depending on engine application, the three main types of synchronous injection designs are: Simultaneous, Grouped, or Sequential. In all these types, voltage is supplied to the injectors from the ignition switch or EFI main relay and the ECM controls injector operation by turning on the driver transistor grounding the injector circuit. Simultaneous and grouped are the oldest styles, and are no longer used.

On simultaneous, all injectors are pulsed at the same time by a common driver circuit. Injection occurs once per engine revolution, just prior to TDC No. 1 cylinder. Twice per engine cycle, one-half of the calculated fuel is delivered by the injectors. With grouped drive circuits, injectors are grouped in combinations. There is a transistor driver for each group of injectors. On sequential drive circuits, each injector is controlled separately and is timed to pulse just before the intake valve opens.

There are times when the ECM needs to inject extra fuel into the engine regardless of crankshaft position and this is called asynchronous injection. Asynchronous injection is when fuel is injected into all cylinders simultaneously when predetermined conditions exist without relation to the crankshaft angle. Two common conditions are starting and acceleration.

Note: The EWD injector circuit can identify if the injection system is a grouped or sequential. A sequential system will have one injector per injector driver.

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