The MAF meter is a sensor that measures the amount of air flowing through the throttle valve. The ECM uses this information to determine the fuel injection time and to provide an appropriate air-fuel ratio. Inside the MAF meter, there is a heated platinum wire which is exposed to the flow of intake air. By applying a specific electrical current to the wire, the ECM heats it to a specific temperature. The flow of incoming air cools both the wire and an internal thermistor, affecting their resistance. To maintain a constant current value, the ECM varies the voltage applied to these components of the MAF meter. The voltage level is proportional to the airflow through the sensor, and the ECM uses it to calculate the intake air volume. The ECM monitors the average engine load value ratio to check the MAF meter for malfunctions. The average engine load value ratio is obtained by comparing the average engine load calculated from the MAF meter output to the average engine load estimated from the driving conditions, such as the engine speed and the throttle opening angle. If the average engine load value ratio is below the threshold value, the ECM determines that the intake air volume is low, and if the average engine load value ratio is above the threshold value, the ECM determines that the intake air volume is high. If this is detected in 2 consecutive driving cycles, the MIL is illuminated and a DTC is set.
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