Heated Oxygen Sensor Output Voltage Output Voltage High Voltage and Low Voltage

Active air-fuel ratio control


Active air-fuel ratio control begins when all of following conditions met:


Battery voltage

11 V or more

Engine coolant temperature

75 °C (167°F) or more



Engine RPM

Less than 3,200 rpm

A/F sensor status


Fuel system status

closed loop

Fuel cut

OFF (for 10 seconds or more)

Engine load

10 to 70 %

Shift position

4 th or more

DIY Battery Repair

DIY Battery Repair

You can now recondition your old batteries at home and bring them back to 100 percent of their working condition. This guide will enable you to revive All NiCd batteries regardless of brand and battery volt. It will give you the required information on how to re-energize and revive your NiCd batteries through the RVD process, charging method and charging guidelines.

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